جديد المنتدى

 رفع و تحميل الملفات

القائمة الرئيسية
  الرئيسية
  الـمــنـتـدى
  مكتبة تعليم الإنجليزية
  محاضراتي لبيتي !
  أرشيف النتائج الامتحانية
  صـورة و تعليق
  جدول المواد الدراسية
  أرشيف أسئلة الإمتحانات
  قواعد القبول
  لمحة عن الكلية
  مـن نحـن
  دفتر الزوار
  راسلنا
بحث شامل في الموقع
تسجيل الدخول للمنتدى
هل تعلم ؟
 

مكتبة تعليم اللغة الإنكليزيّة

المكتبة > دروس و ملخصات > Gerunds and Infinitives

صفحة جديدة 1

{{ Using Gerunds and Infinitives }}

 

Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a sentence. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or infinitive is needed.
1. Following a verb (gerund or infinitive)
Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the sentence. Consult the lists below to find out which form to use following which verbs.

I expect to have the report done by Friday. [INFINITIVE]

          I anticipate having the report done by Friday. [GERUND]

Some common verbs followed by a gerund :

(note that phrasal verbs, marked here with *, always fall into this category):
 

acknowledge

She acknowledged receiving assistance.

* accuse of

He was accused of smuggling contraband goods.

admit

They admitted falsifying the data.

advise

The author advises undertaking further study.

anticipate

He anticipates having trouble with his supervisor.

appreciate

I appreciated having a chance to read your draft.

avoid

He avoided answering my question.

complete

I finally completed writing my thesis.

consider

They will consider granting you money.

defer

She deferred writing her report.

delay

We delayed reporting the results until we were sure.

deny

They denied copying the information.

discuss

They discussed running the experiments again.

entail

This review procedure entails repeating the test.

* look after

He will look after mailing the tickets.

* insist on

He insisted on proofreading the article again.

involve

This procedure involves testing each sample twice.

justify

My results justify taking drastic action.

mention

The author mentions seeing this event.

* plan on

They had planned on attending the conference.

postpone

The committee has postponed writing the report.

recall

I cannot recall getting those results before.

resent

He resented spending so much time on the project.

recommend

She recommends reading Marx.

resist

The writer resists giving any easy answers.

risk

She risks losing her viewing time.

sanction

They will not sanction copying without permission.

suggest

I suggest repeating the experiment.

* take care of

He will take care of sending it to you.

tolerate

She can’t tolerate waiting for results.

 

Some common verbs followed by an infinitive:
 

afford

We cannot afford to hesitate

agree

The professors agreed to disagree.

appear

The results appear to support your theory.

arrange

They had arranged to meet at noon.

beg

I beg to differ with you.

care

Would you care to respond?

claim

She claims to have new data.

consent

Will you consent to run for office?

decide

When did he decide to withdraw?

demand

I demand to see the results of the survey.

deserve

She deserves to have a fair hearing.

expect

The committee expects to decide by tomorrow.

fail

The trial failed to confirm his hypothesis.

hesitate

I hesitate to try the experiment again.

hope

What do you hope to accomplish?

learn

We have learned to proceed with caution.

manage

How did she manage to find the solution?

neglect

The author neglected to provide an index.

need

Do we need to find new subjects?

offer

We could offer to change the time of the meeting.

plan

They had planned to attend the conference.

prepare

He was not prepared to give a lecture.

pretend

I do not pretend to know the answer.

promise

They promise to demonstrate the new equipment.

refuse

She refused to cooperate any longer.

seem

Something seems to be wrong with your design.

struggle

We struggled to understand her point of view.

swear

He swears to tell the truth.

threaten

The team threatened to stop their research.

volunteer

Will you volunteer to lead the group?

wait

We could not wait to hear the outcome.

want

She did not want to go first.

wish

Do you wish to participate?

 

 

2. Following a preposition (gerund only)

Gerunds can follow a preposition; infinitives cannot.

Can you touch your toes without bending your knees? He was fined for driving over the speed limit.

She got the money by selling the car. A corkscrew is a tool for taking corks out of bottles.

 

Note: Take care not to confuse the preposition “to” with an infinitive form, or with an auxiliary form such as have to, used to, going to.

He went back to writing his paper. [PREPOSITION + GERUND]

I used to live in Mexico. [AUXILIARY + VERB]

I want to go home. [VERB + INFINITIVE]

3. Following an indirect object (infinitive only)

Some verbs are followed by a pronoun or noun referring to a person, and then an infinitive. Gerunds cannot be used in this position.

Some common verbs followed by an indirect object plus an infinitive:  
 

ask

I must ask you to reconsider your statement.

beg

They begged her to stay for another term.

cause

His findings caused him to investigate further.

challenge

Wilkins challenged Watson to continue the research.

convince

Can we convince them to fund our study?

encourage

She encouraged him to look beyond the obvious.

expect

They did not expect us to win an award.

forbid

The author forbade me to change his wording.

force

They cannot force her to reveal her sources.

hire

Did the department hire him to teach the new course?

instruct

I will instruct her to prepare a handout.

invite

We invite you to attend the ceremony.

need

They need her to show the slides.

order

He ordered the group to leave the building.

persuade

Can we persuade you to contribute again?

remind

Please remind him to check the references.

require

They will require you to submit an outline.

teach

We should teach them to follow standard procedures.

tell

Did she tell him to make three copies?

urge

I urge you to read the instructions before you begin.

want

I do not want you to have an accident.

warn

Why didn’t they warn me to turn down the heat?

 

- The End -




جديد المنتدى
ضع بريدك هنا ليصلك أهم و أحدث المشاركات الجديدة في المنتدى

إعلانات

Done by Arabic-Web for Internet Services
جميع الحقوق محفوظة لموقع آرتين Art-En.com © 2006 - 2021